In English, a complex sentence consists of a main part and one or more subordinate clauses. Types of subordinate clauses in English: Subject clause, Predicative clause, Object clause, Attributive clause, Adverbial clause.
Types of subordinate clauses
The subordinate subject clause performs the function of the subject. Joins the main subject with the conjunctions that, whether, and the words who, whom, whose, what, which, where, when, why, how.
- All that she wants is the truth
- Who comes first does not matter
Subordinate predicate clauses perform the function of the nominal part of the predicate. They are joined using that, if/ whether, as if/as though, etc.
- That is why we came here
- That is what he wanted to ask about
Object clause perform the function of an adjunct and are joined to the main one using the words that, whether, who, whom, whose, what, which, where, when, why, how, etc. and in a non-conjunctive way — the latter is characteristic of spoken speech:
- Не knows.where the book is
- They said they were there
- The girl who came into our classroom was very pretty
- The school we go to is in our street
The Adverbial clause, which performs the function of the circumstances of the main sentence, has several types.
Adverbial clause of time
Adverbial clause of time joins with the conjunctions when, after, before, while, as, till/until, as soon as, as long as, since, etc.
- Call me as soon as you come home
- After we had written a composition, we went out of the classroom
Adverbial clause of cause
Adverbial clause of cause is joined using the conjunctions because, as/since, for, etc.
- We went to cinema because we wanted to watch a new film
- As we were ill, we stayed at home
Adverbial clause of place
Adverbial clause of place is joined to the main one using the conjunctions where, wherever
- We went where the park was
- Tim left the book on the table where you told him
Adverbial clause of result
Adverbial clause of result joins the main with the conjunction so (that)
- Ann was so ill that she couldn’t go to school
- We had decided to stay at home so we did all housework
Adverbial clause of purpose
Adverbial clause of purpose begin with the conjunctions so (that), in order that (to), lest
- We went to school earlier lest we might be late for classes
- Nick came to us in order that we might help him
Adverbial clause of comparison
Adverbial clause of comparison are combined with the main conjunctions as, as … as, than, as if, etc
- Do as you like
- The more we read the story, the more we liked it
Adverbial clause of concession
The last type of Adverbial clause– Adverbial clause of concession. Conjunctions used in the following sentences: though, however, whatever, etc.
- He didn’t come though we had asked him
- We stayed in the street although it was getting dark