A noun is a part of speech that denotes an object or phenomenon and answers the question who? what? .

For example, we can refer to a noun:

  • living beings: human; animal;
  • objects and materials: phone; skin;
  • intangible concepts: wittiness;
  • places: England, square, etc.
Proper Nouns and Common Nouns
Proper NounsCommon Nouns
Names and surnames: Dan, Lora BrownNames of beings and non-beings (countable): a girl a fox, a map, a road
Geographical names: Paris, the USACollective concepts that mean one whole (countable): a family, a crowd
Names of companies, newspapers, universities, etc: Apple, the Times, OxfordMaterials and substances (uncountable): snow, oil, sand
Names of months, days of the week, nationalities: January, Friday, UkrainianAbstract, denoting natural phenomena, feelings, events, state: winter, love, peace


Number of nouns
Nouns that end in -s, -ch, -х, -sh, -ss, acquire the ending -es in the plurala dress dresses, a box boxes
Nouns that end in with a preceding consonant, when adding the ending -es the letter is changed to a story stories, a cherry — cherries, a city cities
Nouns that end in with a preceding consonant acquire the ending -es when forming a plurala potato — potatoes

but: a photo — photos, a piano — pianos, a kilo — kilos

Nouns that end in -f/-fe, in the plural, when adding the ending -s the letter -f/-fe is changed to -v.a wife — wives, a leafleaves;

but: a roof — roofs, a chiefchiefs, a handkerchief — handkerchiefs, a safe — safes

The plural of some nouns is formed by changing the root vowel or changing the form of the word, they should be remembereda man — men, a woman — women, a foot — feet, a tooth — teeth, a goose — geese, a mouse — mice, a child — children, an ox — oxen
If the word is complex and written together, then it changes according to general rulesa postman — postmen, a schoolboy — schoolboys
If a compound word is written with a hyphen, the plural form is acquired by the word that is basic in meaninga passer-by — passers-by
If the first word in a compound noun is the word man or woman-, then both parts of the compound word changea woman-teacher — women-teachers, але a policeman — policemen, a fireman — firemen
Some nouns are used only in the singularmoney, information, news, love, peace, luggage, advice, knowledge
Some nouns are used only in the pluralclothes, goods, glasses, scissors, scales, trousers, shorts, police, stairs
Some nouns have the same singular and plural formswine, fish, deer, sheep


The Possessive Case
The noun in the possessive case answers the question whose?
The possessive singular is formed by adding an apostrophe and ending -s to the nounThis is ту brother’s book. We are in my mother’s office.
If a noun in the singular has the ending -ss, -х, -s, then in the possessive case only an apostrophe is added to itJames wife
If a plural noun ends in -s, only an apostrophe is added to it in the possessive caseteenagers rucksacks
If the plural noun does not end in -s, then the possessive case is formed by adding an apostrophe and ending in -schildren’s skateboards
In addition to beings, nouns can have the possessive case form:

  • names of countries and cities
  • astronomical names
  • which indicate time and distance
  • collective concepts of type party, family, society, government
  • words: city, country, world, town, river, ocean
the sun’s surface

New year’s eve

the government’s report

the river’s banks

Sometimes you can use the possessive case in phrases. In such cases, the ending -s is added only to the last wordBob and Nick’s motorbike

Countable and uncountable nouns

Countable nouns are nouns that can be counted. They include most objects and phenomenon names (cupboards, vegetables, decisions)Used:

  • both in the singular and in the plural;
  • with articles: а / an / the;
  • with pronouns: any, some, none;
  • with adverbs: many

(a) few – if quantity is specified

Uncountable nouns are nouns that cannot be counted. This category includes nouns that mean:

  • feeling (hatred, love);
  • substances (sand, water);
  • abstract concepts (time, knowledge);
  • names of conditions, diseases (flu);
  • processes (reading, sleeping);
  • game names and languages (football, chess, Ukrainian);
  • phenomena of nature (gravity, sunshine)

  • only in the singular;
  • only with the article, but can be used with pronouns: any, some, none;
  • with adverbs: much, (a) little — if quantity is specified;
  • to specify quantity with uncountable nouns: a bag of/ spoonful / ton of;

a grain of; a piece of; a slice of; a flash of; a loaf of; a pair of; a carton of; a jar of; a can of; a kilo of; a bottle of; a bit of; a game of

Some nouns can be both countable and uncountable, but slightly changing their meaning.
  • hair — hairs
  • ron — an iron
  • glass — a glass
  • paper — a paper

The noun is one of the main constituent parts of the language.


  1. Чіміріс Ю.В. Довідник у таблицях. Англійська мова. 7 – 11 класи. 2018. – 32 ст. 
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